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« เมื่อ: วันที่ 13 มกราคม 2018 เวลา 09:50:12 น. »
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Wat Saket
Wat Saket Ratcha Wora Maha Wihan (Thai: วัดสระเกศราชวรมหาวิหาร, usually shortened to Wat Saket (rtgs: Wat Sa Ket) is a Buddhist temple (wat) in Pom Prap Sattru Phai district, Bangkok, Thailand.
Wat Saket
The temple dates back to the Ayutthaya era, when it was known as Wat Sakae. When Bangkok became the capital, King Rama I renovated the temple and gave it its present name.
Phu Khao Thong
Phu Khao Thong (“Golden Mountain”, ภูเขาทอง) is a steep artificial hill inside the Wat Saket compound.
Rama I’s grandson, King Rama III (1787–1851), decided to build a chedi of huge dimensions inside Wat Saket, but the chedi collapsed during construction because the soft soil of Bangkok could not support the weight. Over the next few decades, the abandoned mud-and-brick structure acquired the shape of a natural hill and was overgrown with weeds. The locals called it the phu khao (ภูเขา), as if it were a natural feature.
During the reign of King Rama IV, construction began of a small chedi on the hill. It was completed early in the reign of his son, King Rama V (1853–1910). A relic of the Buddha was brought from Sri Lanka and placed in the chedi. The surrounding concrete walls were added in the 1940s to stop the hill from eroding. The modern Wat Saket was built in the early 20th century of Carrara marble.
An annual festival is held at Wat Saket every November, featuring a candlelight procession up Phu Khao Thong to the chedi.
Phu Khao Thong is now a popular Bangkok tourist attraction and has become a symbol of the city.
Wat Chedi Luang
Wat Chedi Luang (Thai: วัดเจดีย์หลวง, lit. temple of the big stupa or temple of the royal stupa) is a Buddhist temple in the historic centre of Chiang Mai, Thailand. The current temple grounds were originally made up of three temples — Wat Chedi Luang, Wat Ho Tham and Wat Sukmin.
History
The construction of the temple started in the 14th century, when King Saen Muang Ma planned to bury the ashes of his father there. After 10 years of building time it was left unfinished, later to be continued after the death of the king by his widow. Probably due to stability problems it took until the mid-15th century to be finished during the reign of king Tilokaraj. It was then 82 m high and had a base diameter of 54 m, at that time the largest building of all Lanna. In 1468, the Emerald Buddha was installed in the eastern niche. In 1545, the upper 30 m of the structure collapsed after an earthquake, and shortly thereafter, in 1551, the Emerald Buddha was moved to Luang Prabang.
In the early 1990s the chedi was reconstructed, financed by UNESCO and the Japanese government. However the result is somewhat controversial, as some claim the new elements are in Central Thai style, not Lanna style. For the 600th anniversary of the chedi in 1995, a copy of the Emerald Buddha made from black jade was placed in the reconstructed eastern niche. The icon is named official Phra Phut Chaloem Sirirat, but is commonly known as Phra Yok.
Buildings
Also on the temple grounds is the city pillar (Lak Mueang) of Chiang Mai, named Sao Inthakin. It was moved to this location in 1800 by King Chao Kawila; it was originally located in Wat Sadeu Muang. He also planted three dipterocarp tree there, which are supposed to assist the city pillar to protect the town. A festival in honor of the city pillar is held every year in May and lasts 6–8 days.
In a wihan near the entrance to the temple is the Buddha statue named Phra Chao Attarot (Eighteen-cubit Buddha), which was cast in the late 14th century. On the other side of the chedi is another pavilion housing a reclining Buddha statue.
Wat Chedi Luang hosts monk chats every day[3] – tourists are invited to speak with monks (usually novices) and ask them anything about Buddhism or Thailand.
Phanom Rung Historical Park
Phanom Rung (Thai: พนมรุ้ง, pronounced [pʰānōm rúŋ]), or full name, Prasat Hin Phanom Rung (Thai: ปราสาทหินพนมรุ้ง – Phanom Rung Stone Castle), is a Khmer temple complex set on the rim of an extinct volcano at 402 metres (1,319 ft) elevation, in Buriram Province in the Isan region of Thailand. It was built of sandstone and laterite in the 10th to 13th centuries. It was a Hindu shrine dedicated to Shiva, and symbolises Mount Kailash, his heavenly dwelling.
Thailand’s Department of Fine Arts spent 17 years restoring the complex to its original state from 1971 to 1988. On 21 May 1988, the park was officially opened by Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn. In 2005, the temple was submitted to UNESCO for consideration as a future World Heritage Site.
Architecture
After the three-leveled lower stairway is the first cruciform platform, giving a first peek at the main temple. On the right, northward, is Phlab Phla or the White Elephant House. The pavilion is believed to be the place where kings and the royal family would change attire before rituals. Royalty would then enter the processional walkway, one of the most impressive elements of the park. It is 160 meters long and bordered by seventy sandstone posts with tops of lotus buds. The walkway itself is paved with laterite blocks.
The walkway leads to the first of three naga bridges. The five-headed snakes face all four directions and are from the 12th century. This bridge represents the connection between heaven and earth. The naga bridge leads to the upper stairway, which is divided into five sets. Each set has terraces on the sides. The last terrace is wide, made with laterite blocks. It has a cruciform shape and four small pools. A couple more steps lead to the second naga bridge. It has the same shape as the first one, only smaller. In the middle the remains of an eight petalled lotus carving can be seen.
This final terrace leads to the outer gallery. It probably used to be a wooden gallery with a tiled roof, but only a raised floor of laterite remains. After the outer gallery one reaches the inner gallery, which is divided in long and narrow rooms. It served as a wall around the principal tower. This last gallery leads to the third and last naga bridge, another small copy of the first one.
The bridge leads directly into the main sanctuary. After the antechamber and the annex, one reaches the principal tower. Double porches lead out in all directions. The inner sanctum used to have the “linga”, the divine symbol of Shiva. Currently, only the “somasutra” remains which was used to drain water during religious rites. The entrances have various lintels and icons depicting Hindu religious stories, e.g., the dancing Shiva and the five yogi’s. The south entrance is guarded by a sandstone statue.
Apart from the main tower, other buildings in the compound are:
Two brick sanctuaries built around the 10th century, northeast of the tower.
The minor sanctuary southwest of the tower with a sandstone altar for a sacred image. It was built with sandstone in the 11th century. Prang Noi has only one entrance facing east. The sanctuary is square with indented corners, giving it a round feel.
Two Bannalai southeast and northeast of the principal tower. The buildings are rectangular and have only one entrance. They were built in the last period, around the 13th century, and used as a library for holy scriptures.
Phra Narai Lintel
One of the most well-known elements of the temple is a decorative lintel placed above the eastern entrance to the central sanctuary. It depicts a reclining Vishnu or Vishnu Anantasayin, and is known in Thai as Thap Lang Narai Banthomsin (ทับหลังนารายณ์บรรทมสินธุ์).
The lintel is best known for its restitution from the Art Institute of Chicago in 1988. It had been stolen from the temple site in the 1960s and was acquired by the museum in 1967, where it was displayed for over twenty years, described as “the Birth of Brahma with Reclining Vishnu on a Makara”. In early 1988, as restoration of the temple neared completion, calls were made by several parties in Thailand for its return. The issue became the subject of intense media attention, with some even accusing the US Government of facilitating the theft. The Thai government entered negotiations with the museum, which was unwilling to consider an unconditional return, since it had acquired the item in good faith. Finally, in October, the museum agreed to repatriate the lintel in exchange for a donation from the Chicago-based Elizabeth F. Cheney Foundation. The lintel’s arrival in Thailand on 10 November was widely celebrated, and was covered live on the national TV pool. It was restored to its original position on 7 December, marking the completion of the temple’s restoration.
Phimai Historical Park
The Phimai historical park (Thai: ปราสาทหินพิมาย) protects one of the most important Khmer temples of Thailand. It is located in the town of Phimai, Nakhon Ratchasima province.
The temple marks one end of the Ancient Khmer Highway from Angkor. As the enclosed area of 1020x580m is comparable with that of Angkor Wat, Phimai must have been an important city in the Khmer Empire. Most buildings are from the late 11th to the late 12th century, built in the Baphuon, Bayon and Angkor Wat style. However, even though the Khmer at that time were Hindu, the temple was built as a Buddhist temple, since the inhabitants of the Khorat area had been Buddhists as far back the 7th century. Inscriptions name the site Vimayapura (which means city of Vimaya), which developed into the Thai name Phimai.
Phimai Historical Park
The first inventory of the ruins was done in 1901 by the French geographer Etienne Aymonier. The site was put under Thai governmental protection by announcement in the Government Gazette, Volume 53, section 34, on September 27, 1936. Most of the restorations were done from 1964 to 1969 as a joint Thai-French project. The historical park, now managed by the Fine Arts Department, was officially opened by Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn on April 12, 1989.
In the aftermath of the fall of the Ayutthaya Kingdom in 1767, attempts were made to set up five separate states, with Prince Teppipit, a son of King Boromakot, attempting to establish Phimai as one, ruling over eastern provinces including Nakhon Ratchasima. As the weakest of the five, Prince Teppipit was the first to be defeated and was executed in 1768. Phimai had previously been an important town at the time of the Khmer. The temple Prasat Hin Phimai, located in the center of the town, was one of the major Khmer temples in ancient Thailand, connected with Angkor by an ancient Khmer Highway, and oriented to face Angkor as its cardinal direction. The site is now protected as the Phimai Historical Park.
Phimai has recently been the base of operations for the excavation of Ban Non Wat.
Khmer influence
Because of its location deep in the northeastern part of Thailand, which was once ruled by the Khmer (modern day Cambodia), Phimai’s architecture and cultural decorations are heavily influenced by Khmer culture. Art and architecture shown on the temple itself shows great evidence of the ancient Khmer civilization. Similar in its look and design to Angkor, it also has the same function for worshiping the gods in the Hindu religion.
Despite the fact that Phimai was built in a similar fashion to Angkor and other Khmer Buddhist temples, the religious origin of some structures within Phimai’s walls are still debated. Evidence of Dvaravati influence, such as the sculpture of “the Wheel of Law” or the statue of Buddha, shows that Phimai was an important Buddhist spiritual location. Although a large quantity of Buddhist artwork has been uncovered in Phimai, evidence including the large pots that were embedded in some corners of the structure suggest that spiritual practices other than Buddhism were also practiced in Phimai. Phimai thus has been an important religious landmark for Animists, Buddhists, and Hindus.
There is little evidence concerning the origins of Phimai or the Khmer civilization in Thailand. The earliest engraved records of the Khmer date from the 6th century AD in the northeast of Thailand. For example, stone Sanskrit inscriptions were found along with statues and engraved images of Hindu deities, such as the image of Shiva’s bull Nandin. The king during that time, Mahendravarman, ordered his men to obliterate the engraved inscription. Modern scholars debate about the possibility that evidence may have been lost.
Phimai, along with other Khmer-influenced temples in Thailand, were built mainly under the cause of the “Deveraja cult,” or “the King that resembles a god.” Jayavarman II was the most mentioned “devaraja.” The Devaraja cult developed the belief of worshiping Shiva and the principle that the king was an avatar of Shiva. Under this principle, Khmer rulers built temples to glorify the reign of the king along with the spread of Hinduism.
The 10th century was the time of the reign of king Rajendravarman II (944-968 AD), which was also a time when Khmer control was spreading into what is now northeastern Thai territory. Consequently, temples in Thailand with the Kleang and Baphuon styles remain as evidence of this Khmer heritage. These structures shared the same signature of having three brick towers on a single platform, for instance the Prasat Prang Ku in Si Saket province and Ban Phuluang in Surin province.
Each individual building has its own special features or functions. For example, Prang Brahmadat was built of laterite blocks that form a square. Or Prang Hin Daeng which translates to “Red Stone Tower” which is also a square but was made of red sandstone. Or the main sanctuary built of white sandstone that is almost 32 meters long. The southern lintel has a statue of Buddha meditating with “seven hoods of naga Muchalinda.” Adjacent to this is a collection of statues of devils and animals depicted from the Tantric Mahayana Buddhist scripture.
Today Phimai is a well-known tourist attraction, especially among people interested in history and archaeology. Located in the middle of Phimai is a small rectangular gallery surrounding the courtyard, which has been newly rebuilt. Within the gallery there is a pre-Angkorean Buddhist inscription that tells the story of prince Siddhartha Gautama and his journey to becoming Buddha, along with other classic Buddhist stories. The prang symbolize that the area is a sacred space.
Within Phimai’s wall
When tourists enter the area of Phimai from the old town on the south, they have to cross a river about one kilometer to the south and enter an ancient laterite landing stage which archaeologists believe stood for the bathing place for the heroine in local myths. The north gate is the city main gate, also known as the “Pratu Chai,” which has recently been reconstructed by the Royal Fine Arts Department. Its size is enormous; it is said that the size is big enough for a royal elephant to enter. The Royal Fine Arts Department also built an inner gallery which shows ancient Buddhist inscriptions and small sculptures as well as pieces of wrecked architecture. The rest of Phimai remains the same only with a little restoration by the Royal Arts Department.
Architecture Style
Having a lot in common with Angkor Wat, Phimai is an example of classical Khmer architecture. Ancient Khmer architects were best known for their superior use of sandstone over the traditional bricks and laterite architectures. Sandstone is used on the visible outer layer. Laterite on the other hand was used for the inner wall and other hidden parts. All the structures are huge sandstone blocks. There are many lotus-shaped roofs representing Mount Meru (Hinduism’s holy mountain).
Khmer temples in general, as well as Phimai in this case, were intended to resemble the universe. The main building resembles the peak of Mount Meru at the center of the universe. The surrounding walls resemble the water and encircling mountains. The Khmer did not develop the technique of true vault architecture during their time, results in large areas at Phimai that could not be roofed over. They instead developed the use of multiple chapels separated by open-air spaces.
Construction Materials
The Khmer learned how to use bricks, sandstone, and laterite effectively. They were the three principal structural materials. Builders generally cut the lintel at 45 degrees to produce a triangular wedge.
Archaeological Projects
In 1998, the Origins of Angkor Project (OAP), a joint project of the Royal Thai Fine Arts Department, Anthropology Department, and the University of Otago, New Zealand, began excavations to investigate the underlying sequence. Temple construction during the Angkorian period involved the deliberate deposition of layers of fill, which can clearly be seen in the stratigraphy of the site.
Wat Mahathat (Ayutthaya)
The Wat Mahathat (Thai วัดมหาธาตุ พระนครศรีอยุธยา, Temple of the Great Relic) is a Buddhist temple in Ayutthaya, central Thailand.
Location
The Wat Mahathat Ayutthaya is located in the center of old Ayutthaya, between Chi Kun Road and Naresuan Road in the northeast corner of Phra Ram Park.
Architecture
According to the official Thai history, referring to the investigations of the Royal Chronicles of Ayutthaya by Prince Damrong Rajanubhab, the history of Wat Mahathat starts in 1374 when King Borommaracha I erected a temple at this place, bearing another name:
“In the Year of the Tiger 736 C.S. Somdet Phra Borommarachathirat and Phra Mahathera Thammakanlayan built the great, glorious, holy, jewelled reliquary (Phra Si Rattana Mahathat) east of the palace (the Royal gable of the lion). He rose 19 wah in height and equipped with a nine-membered tip that is another 3 wah in height.”
His nephew and successor Ramesuan (1369-1370, 1388-1395) expanded the site in 1384 to build a great temple, while he was here as a monk between his throne offices. During this time the temple got its present name.
Wat Phra Singh
Wat Phra Singh (full name: Wat Phra Singh Woramahaviharn; Thai: วัดพระสิงห์วรมหาวิหาร; rtgs: Wat Phra Sing Wora Maha Wihan; (pronunciation); Lanna: LN-Wat Phrasing Woravihar.png) is a Buddhist temple (Thai language: Wat) in Chiang Mai, Northern Thailand. King Ananda Mahidol (Rama VIII), the older brother of the late King Bhumibol Adulyadej (Rama IX), bestowed on it the status of Royal temple of the first grade in 1935.
Location
Wat Phra Singh is located in the western part of the old city centre of Chiang Mai, which is contained within the city walls and moat. The main entrance is guarded by Singhs (lions). Wat Pra Singh is situated at the end of the main street (Rachadamnoen road) of Chiang Mai. The road runs east from the temple, via Tapae Gate, to the Ping River.
Name
Phra Singh is an abbreviated form of Phra-Put-Tha-Shi-Hing and does not refer to the word Singh (“lion”).
Notability
The temple houses an important Buddha statue: the Phra Buddha Sihing which gives the temple its name. The origins of this statue are unknown but, according to legend, it was based on the lion of Shakya, a statue since lost which used to be housed in the Mahabodhi Temple of Bodh Gaya (India). The Phra Buddha Sihing statue is supposed to have been brought, via Ceylon (present day Sri Lanka), to Ligor (present day Nakhon Si Thammarat) and, from there, via Ayutthaya, to Chiang Mai.
There are two more Buddha statues in Thailand which are